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Project Title:PaCo - Mechanisms of panel conditioning in longitudinal surveys: Questions on social desirability, gender roles, and environment (English Version)
  1. General Information: *Note: This item was tested in German. This is an English translation of the original German wording.*
  2. Question Text: Would you agree to share your Apple or Samsung Health data with us so that we can link it to your questionnaire information for scientific purposes?
    [Wären Sie damit einverstanden, Ihre Apple- oder Samsung-Health-Daten mit uns zu teilen, damit wir diese mit Ihren Angaben aus dem Fragebogen für wissenschaftliche Zwecke ver- knüpfen können?]
  3. Answer Categories Yes, I agree [Ja, ich stimme zu]

    No, I do not agree [Nein, ich stimme nicht zu]

    I do not own a smartphone from these manufacturers [Ich besitze kein Smartphone von diesen Herstellern]

    1. Recommendations: Question: We recommend that this question be preceded by a filter question asking whether the respondents own a smartphone from Apple or Samsung. Question 16 should then only be asked of those respondents who answer this filter question in the affirmative. In addition, a short explanation should be added to the question to clarify that the Health app automatically records certain data, even if the app is not actively used.

      Alternatively, if the question is intended to capture general willingness to share smartphone data, regardless of whether respondents own an Apple or Samsung smartphone, we recommend rephrasing the question:

      "Would you agree to share health data collected from your smartphone with us so that we can link it to your questionnaire information for scientific purposes?" [Würden Sie zustimmen, die von Ihrem Smartphone gesammelten Gesundheitsdaten mit uns zu teilen, damit wir sie zu wissenschaftlichen Zwecken mit Ihren Fragebogendaten verknüpfen können?]

      Response format: No changes recommended. When using an upstream filter question, the answer category "I do not own a smartphone from these manufacturers" should be removed.
  1. Cognitive Techniques:Information image/link to cognitive pretesting Comprehension Probe, Category Selection Probe, Specific Probe
  2. Findings for Question: Do the test persons have problems understanding and/or answering the question?

    Four test persons had problems understanding the question or did not answer it correctly (TP 03, 04, 05, 09). Test persons 03 and 04 were not aware that this data was collected automatically without actively using the Health app:
    • "I'm actually missing an answer there now. I own an iPhone, but I don't use Apple Health. But probably the iPhone uses that without me doing anything?” (TP 03)
    • "I didn't, so I don't agree. [...] I don't use these services, but I couldn't check that anywhere. There was only the option ‘I do not own a smartphone from these manufacturers’.
    • "That is, you own a smartphone from these manufacturers, but you do not use these services, right?
    • "Exactly.
    Test persons 05 and 09 did not own an Apple or Samsung smartphone. However, instead of selecting the corresponding answer options, both clicked "No, I do not agree":
    • "Well, I don't have Apple. I have a Huawai.” (TP 05)
    • "Whether I agree or not, I don't have a smartphone from Apple and I don't have one from Samsung. But wait, I'm lying to you. The tablet I have in front of me is from Samsung, while the phone is from Huawai. O. K., I do not agree.” (TP 09)
    How willing are test persons to share their Apple or Samsung Health data?

    Two of the ten test persons stated that they did not own an Apple or Samsung smartphone (TP 06, 07), and two other test persons (TP 05, 09) answered the question with "No, I do not agree," although they do not own a smartphone from these manufacturers. Of the remaining test subjects, the majority (n = 5) were willing to share their Apple or Samsung Health data. The reasons given for this were that these data were not perceived as sensitive or that they generally trusted science or GESIS in particular:
    • "For me, this data is not of great value. How often I move or how I move doesn't have much value to me. And that's why it would be okay for me to share this data.” (TP 01)
    • "Because it is for a scientific purpose. I trust science.” (TP 02)
    • "Because I know GESIS [laughs]. [...] That's what it says, or have I misunderstood? Doesn't that refer to GESIS? Well, I would only agree to it if I know the institution very well...” (TP 10)
    Test person 04 justified her refusal with the fact that she does not use the Health app and does not want to disclose any more data than she already does: “One is because, as I said, I don't use it. But I couldn't check that off anywhere. And I find that they already know enough. They can always access the cell phones anyway, so to speak, and due to that you don't have to disclose it as well.

    What do the test persons understand by "Apple or Samsung Health data"?

    With the exception of the two test persons who stated that they did not own an Apple or Samsung smartphone, all were asked to explain what they understood by the term "Apple or Samsung health data". Of these eight test persons, two indicated they did not know the term (TP 05, 09):
    • "So, Apple I do not have. But no idea what this Health data is, no idea. In any case, it's data that goes along in the phone.” (TP 05)
    • "Maybe you can help me a little bit. I'm going to assume the company, i.e. Samsung or Apple.” (TP 09)
    The remaining six test persons were able to describe the Health app correctly:
    • "So how often I move, with the smartphone, so all the pedometers or something like that. So in general, I would have associated movement data with it.” (TP 01)
    • "Well, I have an iPhone and there is an app called Health. There you can enter certain data, such as height, weight, when you got your period, etc. I think you can also upload medical documents.” (TP 02)
    • "The health data is that, I think. Fitness scores and stuff. The number of steps. I used that once, but I let it stay again.” (TP 08)
    • "Yes, I use something like that. I have a watch like this that records my health data and it is stored in Health.” (TP 10)
  1. Question Topic: Digitalization/ Use of digital systems
  2. Construct: Willingness to share smartphone data