Pretest Database
Project Title:PIAAC-Longitudinal (PIAAC-L) 2016 - Acquisition of Competencies (English Version)
  1. General Information: *Note: This item was tested in German. This is an English translation of the original German wording. The translation does not correspond exactly to the wording in the English PIAAC source questionnaire.*
  2. Question Text: What was the most important reason that prevented you in 2014 from participating in further vocational training?
    [Was war der wichtigste Grund, der Sie im Jahr 2014 daran gehindert hat an einer beruflichen Weiterbildung teilzunehmen?]
  3. Instruction: INT: Present list 4. [INT: Liste 4 vorlegen]

    INT: Ask the TP to select only the most important reason. [INT: Die TP bitten, nur den wichtigsten Grund auszuwählen.]
  4. Answer Categories 1 Last year there was no suitable training programme available. [Im letzten Jahr war kein passendes Weiterbildungsangebot verfügbar.]

    2 The training took place at an inappropriate time or place. [Die Weiterbildung fand zu einer ungünstigen Zeit oder an einem ungünstigen Ort statt.]

    3 My professional appointments have left me no time for further training. [Meine beruflichen Termine haben mir für Weiterbildung keine Zeit gelassen.]

    4 My family commitments have left me no time for further training. [Meine familiären Verpflichtungen haben mir für Weiterbildung keine Zeit gelassen.]

    5 My employer did not support my training intentions. [Mein Arbeitgeber hat meine Weiterbildungsabsichten nicht unterstützt.]

    6 Taking part in further vocational training would not have improved my personal career prospects. [Die Teilnahme an einer beruflichen Weiterbildung hätte meine persönlichen Berufschancen nicht verbessert.]

    7 Further vocational training would have entailed costs or loss of earnings. [Eine berufliche Weiterbildung wäre mit Kosten oder Verdienstausfall verbunden gewesen.]

    8 I did not dare to take part in further training. [Ich habe es mir nicht zugetraut, an einer Weiterbildung teilzunehmen.]

    9 I lacked the prerequisites for participation. [Mir fehlten die Teilnahmevoraussetzungen.]

    10 At my age, further training is no longer worthwhile. [In meinem Alter lohnt sich Weiterbildung nicht mehr.]

    11 I had no overview of further training offers. [Ich hatte keinen Überblick über Weiterbildungsangebote.]

    12 I had no interest in further training. [Ich hatte kein Interesse an Weiterbildung.]

    13 Another reason, that is: [Ein anderer Grund, und zwar:]

    13.1 Training/Apprenticeship completed [Ausbildung/Lehre beendet.]

    13.2 Starting a new job [Beginn einer neuen Arbeitsstelle]

    13.3 Within the application phase [Innerhalb der Bewerbungsphase]


    1. Recommendations: Question: No changes recommended.
      Answer options: Three additional reasons could be added to the response options:
      "I've recently completed a further training course."
      [„Ich habe kurz zuvor eine Weiterbildung abgeschlossen.“]
      "I was in the application phase for a new job."
      [„Ich habe mich in der Bewerbungsphase für eine neue Stelle befunden.“]
      "Health reasons prevented me from pursuing further training." [„Gesundheitliche Gründe hinderten mich an einer Weiterbildung.“]
  1. Cognitive Techniques: Specific Probing
  2. Findings for Question: This question was answered by all those test persons (TP 01, 02, 04, 05, 09, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18) who stated in question 3 that they had not participated in any further vocational training in 2014.

    Three test persons (TP 02, 14, 15) chose answer option 13 (Another reason, namely) and gave the reasons "Training/Apprenticeship completed" (TP 02); "Starting a new job" (TP 14) and "Within the application phase" (TP 15).

    A total of four test persons (TP 02, 05, 14, 15) mention that they would have liked to give several reasons:
    • "I've also been looking around for some further training. There it would have been the loss of earnings and the costs, because I wouldn't have known if the boss would pay for it. I could not have afforded it. Over a thousand euros. Yes, actually [answer] 13 was the decisive factor." (TP 02; "Another reason")
    • "Basically, I can name two things here. Firstly, 'My employer did not support my training intentions'. He generally does not do that. The other, another reason: I was in the application phase and accordingly, I was hoping to get a job, to be able to fully concentrate on it.” (TP 15; "Another reason")
    Test person 18 initially has difficulty in assigning herself to an answer category because she is not sure whether she should answer the question from her own perspective or that of the Office: "Do you think for me now or what the Office has said? Well, for me it was practically my foot illness, but from the Office's point of view it was 'At my age, further training is no longer worthwhile'. So at least not the one I wanted." (TP 18; "At my age it's not worth continuing education."). In the end, she decided in favour of the statement of the office, because this was for her "worse than health reasons".

    Ultimately, however, all test persons can decide on one or the "most important reason" that prevented them from participating in further vocational training in 2014. A total of six test persons (TP 01, 04, 05, 13, 14, 17) found the answer to the question "very easy". Four test persons (TP 02, 09, 15, 18) state that it was "rather easy" for them to decide, which was the most important reason that prevented them from participating in further training in 2014. Test person 01 also mentions that she "did not even finish reading" (TP 01; "My professional appointments did not leave me time for further training") and that the list was therefore not necessary for her to answer the question.

    Subsequently, the test persons were asked whether they could think of any other reason why people could not participate in further training. Five test persons (TP 01, 02, 09, 13, 18) give reasons why people might not have taken part in further training. However, these can each be assigned to one or more of the existing answer categories on the list and therefore do not represent "other reasons": "Perhaps because they are not informed of offers by their employer? Or think that there is no time frame for this." (TP 09; corresponds to answer options 11 "I had no overview of further training offers" and 3 "My professional appointments did not leave me time for further training"). However, test persons 14 and 17 can give further reasons that are not yet on the list:
    • "Yes, my reasons exactly. That you've just finished a training course or you're starting a new job." (TP 14; "I've recently completed a training course.")
    • "Healthwise, that you can no longer practice further training." (TP 17; "Health reasons prevented me from pursuing further training.")
    According to this, two additional reasons "I have only recently completed a further training course" and "Health reasons prevented me from further training" result from the statements of the test persons.

    All in all, it can be stated that the test persons can largely assign themselves to a given answer option in the list without any difficulties worth mentioning and that they were basically able to commit themselves to one of the most important reasons that prevented them from participating in further vocational training in 2014.
  1. Question Topic: Job and career/ Job situation & professional activity
  2. Construct: Participation in further vocational training