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Project Title:PIAAC-Longitudinal (PIAAC-L) 2016 - Background Questionnaire (English Version)
  1. General Information: *Note: This item was tested in German. This is an English translation of the original German wording. The translation does not correspond exactly to the wording in the English PIAAC source questionnaire.*
  2. Question Text: Are you or have you ever been employed?
    [Sind oder waren Sie schon einmal berufstätig?]
  3. Answer Categories Yes [Ja]

    No [Nein]

    1. Recommendations: If temporary or marginal employment is also to be covered (see also the findings of Question 10), the question should be extended by an instruction.
      Question: No changes recommended.
      Instruction: Please also take temporary and marginal employment into account. [Berücksichtigen Sie dabei auch bitte Aushilfstätigkeiten und geringfügige Beschäftigungen.]
      Answer options: No changes recommended.
  1. Cognitive Techniques:Information image/link to cognitive pretesting Emergent Probing
  2. Findings for Question: Out of a total of 15 test persons, 14 have already had a job. Only test person 04 states that she has not yet been employed. From the spontaneous comment of test person 04, however, it is clear that she was already in an employment relationship. However, since she combines the wording employed with vocation and long-term commitment, she does not include her previous temporary jobs. According to test person 04, working means: "Profession is a vocation, that one likes to do it with passion. Being professionally active is something long-term. I only did my temporary job for financial reasons. I don't consider that to be a job.” A similar problem comes up with test person 11. He is not sure if studying is classified as working. The previous temporary jobs alongside studying are not directly associated with by test person 11 (answer: "Yes") with the expression "working": "Is being a student a profession? This is not 'working' everywhere. So I am a student. I'm not employed in the sense of having done an apprenticeship or something, except for holiday jobs or part-time jobs.”
  1. Question Topic: Job and career/ Job situation & professional activity
  2. Construct: Employment